CCI asked us to design a mobile app where grocery stores and eateries could order Coca-Cola products. Orders are normally received by CCI employees titled “pre-sellers.” Transforming this already well-established system could have risks in terms of product adoption. Therefore we initially focused on understanding the system, the actors, and the interactions to come up with new design opportunities and ideas.
Our client was Coca-Cola Icecek (CCI), a Coca-Cola bottler operating in Turkey, Middle East, as well as some Asian countries.
The process was made up of two workshops, followed by a field research, synthesis, ideation. We then selected some ideas and refined them through critique sessions. I co-facilitated the workshops with Monitise UX design team leader. After getting a broad idea about the system and the actors in the workshops, I planned the research, including the research and the interview questions. I worked with two other UX designers in the field research. I led all interview sessions and was assisted by one of the other two designers with taking notes and asking complementary questions. For the rest of the process, three of us were together making sense of the data, generating ideas, and compiling them into a presentable format.
“Between December 2016 and February 2017, I worked with Emre on a project for a major beverage company. It was truly one of the most educative experiences on my career. He asked questions that made me see the situation from a completely different angle and enabled us to come up with applicable but unusual solutions to real-life problems.”
As a part of a complex distribution system, pre-sellers are the primary points of contact between CCI and points of sale, which are all locations that sell Coca-Cola beverages. Each pre-seller works with about 70 points in total, and visits about 30 points each day. This is about 15 minutes per point. Within these 15 minutes, the pre-seller not only takes orders, but also checks and re-orders coolers, shelves, promotional materials, and makes some small talk as well. Here, the interpersonal relationship between the pre-sellers and the points is critical for CCI to retain and increase its market share.
We first drafted a research matrix to identify the components of the project, including the objectives, hypotheses, and methods of analysis. Doing this helped us clarify the rationale behind each research question and also plan the research more accurately.
The majority of the research was comprised of semi-structured interviews and shadowing sessions with three pre-sellers and a total of 31 points of sale. We prepared several key questions that cover the main areas to be explored. Yet, we sometimes also diverged from the questions in order to pursue an idea or answer in more detail. This format helped us guide participants on the topics of conversation, but it also revealed information that may not have been realized prior to the research. About 20 interview questions each were created for pre-sellers, points of sale, and delivery staff. Our conversations and observations mainly covered the following areas:
Daily Tasks: What are some common tasks and actions? What do they aim to achieve?
Patterns of Behavior: How do they go about achieving their goals? What tactics do they adopt? How do they interact with others?
Emotional Responses: What makes them feel good or bad about their interactions? What are their frustrations, needs, and motivations?
Use of Technology: What kind of technologies do they use? What do they expect to get from technological products?
In addition, we conducted secondary research to learn about competitors and the landscape of innovation. We also used surveys to gather data about utilization of technology among points of sale.
Synthesis and Ideation
We created four personas and sketched out the journeys and main points of interaction for each of them. We identified six main characteristics as differentiating factors for personas and in order to get a holistic view of personas and utilize as points of validation throughout the process:
Frugality: Being sensitive and vigilant about spendings
Technology Use: Experience in using digital devices
Awareness of CCI’s Value: Awareness of the opportunities offered by CCI and their utilization to improve business
Long-Term Thinking: Being able to create strategies covering a relatively long period of time
Business Ambition: Desire for business accomplishments
Influenceability: Ease of being influenced by pre-sellers, especially on product and promotion suggestions
Below are the details of four personas and their journey maps that highlight the design opportunities:
As a result, we noticed that the points of sale interact with pre-sellers based on how they approach their own businesses. For some points, pre-sellers are just salesmen. During the course of their interaction, these points order only what they need for the coming days, and don’t really engage with pre-sellers any further. For some others that are more open to change and experimentation, pre-sellers are solution partners. This partnership may take many forms. Sometimes, points and pre-sellers may sit down and discuss new ideas for growing the business, or pre-sellers may help them benchmark their business against others. This mutual relationship helps both points and CCI grow their businesses.
By looking for patterns across findings, we identified four main problem statements to tackle:
- How might we digitalize ordering seamlessly
- How might we create and maintain engagement
- How might we support pre-sellers on their routes
- How might we facilitate CCI’s transparency
Below are the ideas we came up with for each problem statement:
At the end of the process, we presented our methodologies, findings, and ideas to the clients. They were really excited about our direction and opportunities the ideas generated. Together, we prioritized ideas based on the following criteria:
- The value delivered for those who use it
- The value delivered for CCI
- The range of users who would benefit
After eliminating the ideas that didn’t rank well, the business analyst and the back-end developer helped us assess the dependencies and the complexity of each idea, prioritizing the ideas that are quick wins.